Many municipalities regulate the location of adult businesses by either dispersing them throughout certain areas or relegating them to a particular part of town. Cities generally justify these zoning measures by relying on what is known as the secondary-effects doctrine. Government officials claim adult bookstores and other businesses that feature adult entertainment such as adult arcades, adult theaters and nude-dancing establishments cause adverse side effects, or secondary effects, that are not related to the expressive content offered by these businesses. These secondary effects include decreased property values and increased crime. The secondary-effects doctrine provides that laws targeting adult businesses are entitled to a less-rigorous form of judicial review. Many zoning laws affecting adult bookstores have been upheld based on this secondary-effects rationale.