The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Neuron See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. It has become increasingly clear, however, that dopamine neurons also transmit signals related to salient but non-rewarding experiences such as aversive and alerting events. Here we review recent advances in understanding the reward and non-reward functions of dopamine. Based on this data, we propose that dopamine neurons come in multiple types that are connected with distinct brain networks and have distinct roles in motivational control. Some dopamine neurons encode motivational value, supporting brain networks for seeking, evaluation, and value learning. Others encode motivational salience, supporting brain networks for orienting, cognition, and general motivation.
JAMA Pediatrics – The Science of Child and Adolescent Health
They cite a controversial paper by Rind et al. Soto, a San Diego Union-Tribune writer, wrote in February , "Law enforcement officials and mental health professionals say that while NAMBLA's membership numbers are small, the group has a dangerous ripple effect through the Internet by sanctioning the behavior of those who would abuse children". NAMBLA Bulletin, a quarterly publication sent to fee-paying members;  in co-founder David Thorstad said, "The Bulletin is turning into a semi-pornographic jerk-off mag for pedophiles". Twenty-four men were arrested and indicted on over felony counts of the statutory rape of boys aged eight to fifteen.